Wolf Hybrid Policy and Vaccination Information

Vaccinating Wolf Hybrids

Regulatory agencies and insurance companies have wrestled with the issue of whether or not wolf hybrids should be vaccinated for rabies. Sworn to uphold their oath and code of ethics, veterinarians are caught in the middle as regulatory agencies question the immunity produced by vaccinating the animals and insurance companies waiver on liability coverage for incidents involving vaccinated and unvaccinated wolf hybrids.

The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) requires that if an animal contains any wolf, even 1 percent, it must be considered a wolf hybrid and handled as an exotic animal. The California Department of Fish and Game, however, only requires a permit for the animal if it is 50 percent or more wolf. According to CDHS, a veterinarian can vaccinate the animal with canine rabies vaccine, but if it bites someone or is bitten by a rabid animal, it will be treated as unvaccinated.

The AVMA Professional Liability Trust, which carries malpractice insurance for many veterinarians, takes the position that if there are no state or local laws against keeping wolf hybrids as pets, the Trust would consider vaccination a discretionary use of a biologic.

The AVMA Trust cautions veterinarians to inform owners that the vaccine is not licensed for use in wolf hybrids, and no studies have proven efficacy of the vaccine in the animals. Veterinarians are also reminded to enter their discussion with the client in the animal’s record and have the client initial it.

CVMA Policy Statement on Wolf Hybrids

If wolf hybrids are not banned by your local jurisdiction, rabies vaccine could be administered after:

1.     The owner has been advised that the vaccine is not licensed for use in wolf hybrids and its efficacy is unknown.

2.     The owner signs a consent form that acknowledges:

a.     The unknown efficacy of the vaccine.

b.    That a wolf hybrid will not be handled as a domestic dog following a human bite.

c.     That a wolf hybrid exposed to a rabid animal could be euthanized even if currently vaccinated.

d.    The release of liability of the veterinarian and staff, health department, vaccine manufacturer and distributor, and other involved parties.

3.     The owners claim that the animal is a wolf hybrid should be recorded on the rabies vaccination certificate.

4.     The animal of an owner who refuses to sign a consent form should not be vaccinated, and this refusal should be documented in the record.

5.     Due to potential legal ramifications, the veterinarian should counsel against ownership of a wolf hybrid or any exotic animal due to behavioral considerations. Or at the very least recommend such things as double fencing and cautions around children. This should be done for any veterinary treatment of these species, not just the rabies vaccinations.

The consent form and all the above information should be included in the animal’s permanent medical record, with a new consent form signed for each vaccination. See the sample consent form for rabies vaccination of a wild animal or wild animal hybrid.


© 2021 California Veterinary Medical Association

CVMA Member Mobile App

With the CVMA mobile app, members can access instant legislative updates, CE offerings, regulatory information, and more! Read More...

Cannabis and Pets

View more information on this important topic by clicking on the links below.

Join the CVMA

As a CVMA member, you’ll have access to outstanding benefits and services.

View the benefits of membership »